10.04.2007 at 00:35 |  
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 weidentify the anatomical structures that influence surface form anddiscuss the musculature and its influence in some detail. In Section3 we briefly describe a procedural model for skeletons. Section4 presents anatomy-based muscle models for simulating thedeformable nature of skeletal muscles. We illustrate the operationof each muscle model and show how the muscle models may beused in conjunction with the skeleton model presented in Section 3.Concluding remarks are given in Section 5 where we discuss possibilitiesfor future research. ARTISTIC ANATOMYAnatomy is a biological science concerned with the form, position,function, and relationship of structures in the human body. Artisticanatomy is a specialized discipline concerned only withthose structures that create and influence surface form. Whereasmedical anatomies consider the human body in an erect and motionlessstance, artistic anatomy is also concerned with changes thatoccur when the body moves into different stances.Three general anatomical structures create surface form:1. The skeleton, consisting of bones and joints organized into anarticulated structure;2. The musculature, consisting of contractile muscles andnonelastic tendons; and3. The panniculus adiposus (or fat layer), consisting of fatty tissuelocated beneath the skin.Before discussing the musculature and its effect on surface form,we briefly mention the influence of the skeleton. Interested readersshould consult reference for more detail.2.1 The skeletonThe skeleton is the basis of all surface form. It determines thegeneral shape of the body and each of its constituent parts. Theskeleton also affects surface form more directly: bones create surfaceform where skin abuts to bones, such as at the elbows andknees. Bones are attached at joints which allow the bones to moverelative to one another. Parts of bones that appear not to create surfaceform in some postures do so in others. For example, the headsof the metacarpal bones cannot be seen unless the hand is clenchedinto a fist.2.2 The musculatureOf the anatomical systems that determine surface form, the musculatureis the most complex. Muscles are arranged side by sideand in layers on top of bones and other muscles . They oftenspan multiple joints. Muscles typically consist of different kinds oftissue, allowing some portions to be contractile and others not. Dependingon their state of contraction, muscles have different shapesand they influence surface form in different ways.
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