10.02.2007 at 10:54 |  
Artists study anatomy to understand the relationship between exterior
form and the structures responsible for creating it. In this
paper we follow a similar approach in developing anatomy-based
models of muscles. We consider the influence of the musculature
on surface form and develop muscle models which react automatically
to changes in the posture of an underlying articulated skeleton.
The models are implemented in a procedural language that provides
convenient facilities for defining and manipulating articulated models.
To illustrate their operation, the models are applied to the torso
and arm of a human figure. However, they are sufficiently general
to be applied in other contexts where articulated skeletons provide
the basis of modeling.

Human figure modeling and animation has been one of the primaryareas of research in computer graphics since the early 1970’s. Thecomplexity of simulating the human body and its behavior is directlyproportional to the complexity of the human body itself, andis compounded by the vast number of movements it is capable of.Although articulated structures containing rigid segments is a reasonableapproximation of the human skeleton, most researchers usearticulated structures that are too simple to be deemed anatomicallyappropriate. The shoulder, spine, forearm, and hand are typicalexamples where accuracy is sacrificed for simplicity. The more difficultproblem of fleshing-out a skeleton is currently an active areaof research. In several of these cases, oversimplification causes undesirable or distracting results. Using flexiblesurfaces at or near joints is a poor approximation because many deformations(like bulging muscles) occur far away from joints. Also,producing intricate joint-dependent changes in the shape of the skinwithout considering the motivators for those shape changes seemsimplausible.In this paper we present an approach to human figure modelingsimilar to the one taken in artistic anatomy—by analyzing the relationshipbetween exterior form and the underlying structures responsiblefor creating it, surface form and shape change may beunderstood and represented best. We focus on the musculature bydeveloping anatomy-based models of skeletal muscles, but many ofthe principles apply equally well to the modeling of other anatomicalstructures that create surface form, such as bones and fatty tissue.
Posted by jt


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